Peculiarities of effective fertilizing
The effective fertilizing system towards agricultural crops is one of the technological providing components of their growing, which actively promotes soil productivity amelioration. An obligatory element of effective crop fertilizing is considered to be the major fertilizer insertion during appropriate soil cultivation, provided in autumn. During major fertilizing, the following conditions should be taken into consideration:
- an appropriate ratio of basic elements in a growing crop and soil;
- an action of phosphorous fertilizers that is in being in the direct contingency from the flatness of one soil level, and also the provision of plants with other nutritious elements, especially with potassium and nitrogen.
The main fertilizer is used for crops during the whole vegetation period; it has a huge effect on productivity’s quality and quantity. The researches show that fertilizers’ effectiveness in such conditions during the spring insertion degrades in 1, 5 times. Such spring fertilizing is not able to provide optimal crops’ productivity. The major insertion during autumn soil cultivation takes away the negative effect that chlorine creates for plants. The most appropriate major insertion is to provide with mixtures of mineral fertilizers (MIXED FERTILIZERS), which by their nutrition elements and their insertion exceed the quality of separately taken and inserted simple fertilizers.
The main advantages of mixed fertilizers
- are made of highly concentrated fertilizers, contain nutritious elements in easily accessible form, ecologically safe, have good chemical and physic characteristics;
- a great choice of NKP balance allows providing the optimal nutrition depending on soil qualities, crop peculiarities, planned harvest;
- the phosphorous accessibility is approximately twice higher in comparison with superphosphate, and, in general, the content of major elements is 20-30 % higher comparing with corresponding nitroammophos.;
- the cost of one acting agent unit in mixed fertilizers is being for 25% cheaper in comparison with one-way fertilizers;
- the expenses for transporting, keeping and inserting of mixed fertilizers comparing with simple fertilizers decrease twice;
- the general money economy during using of mixed fertilizers may be up to 40-50%.
Soy bean has become one of the most widespread crops in our country. Due to it a perspective of enhancement of soil, weary with excessive sun flower growing, is possible and, besides, getting a better mediator for winter crops. In Ukraine there are good climatic conditions for soy bean growing. Due to the high quality of bean and vegetative mass, soy is being one of main protein oily plants in the world. It finds its determination in animal and food processing industries. For the higher productivity of this crop, the usage of mild doses of organic fertilizers is recommended (20-30 t per ha) and mineral fertilizers as well.
Pop corn is the most ancient bread plant in the world. It is one of the most popular grain crops that is grown on vast spaces. By its biological potential, productivity level, feeding qualities it excesses wheat, barley and other grain crops. Pop corn is being a valuable product of food and processing industries. In order to get high grain productivity one should insert 150-170 kg of nitrogen, 50-60 kg pf phosphor and 150-190 kg of potassium on the level of 60-70 centners per ha. Pop corn easily digests these nutritious elements of mineral fertilizers.
An important place belongs to winter wheat among grain crops. For its high productivity, it is essential to insert macro- and microelements on time. The best winter wheat reacts at nitrogen and phosphor; it increases the productivity level and the crop quality. Per 1 ton of grain, winter wheat takes 25-35 kg of nitrogen, 19-30 kg of phosphor and 15-20 kg of potassium from the soil. One should insert up to 30% of nitrogen and 90% of phosphor and potassium during the major soil cultivation. Other fertilizers are inserted during sowing and feeding.
Sunflower is considered to be one of the main oily crops in Ukraine, which comparing with other plants gives more oil from the one square unit. Sunflower is very demanding concerning nutritious matters. The major insertion of mineral fertilizers should be better conducted in autumn, as to the spring fertilizing the it has to be used for 11-15cm of depth. By the productivity of seeds 21 centners/ha per 1 ha digests: 120kg of nitrogen, 45kg of phosphor and 235kg of potassium. The most productive soils for sunflower growing are considered to be common and typical humus, podzolized, dark grey soils and others.
Sugar beet is being one of the most important technical plants, raw material of the sugar industry. Ukraine has become the main sugar producing district due to its useful and soil conditions. For providing the high productivity of sugar beet, keeping the traditional fertilizing technologies, nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers are inserted into soil consequently 40 and 60kg of the acting matter per ha; their insertion provides the sugar beet productivity increase for 18%.
Barley is an important feeding, food and technical crop. It is being very demanding to nutrition conditions; this is explained by the low-developed root system and short vegetation period. The major half of nutritious elements the plant takes before its head process. Barley reacts well at mineral and organic fertilizers usage. The bigger part of fertilizers is inserted during major soil cultivation; an effective fertilizing is considered to be the complete (N:P:K=1:1:1) or nitrogen-phosphorous one, applied before sowing.